Flora and fauna of the Athens County area, and occasionally habitats outside Ohio. Subject matter will consist of both interpretive material and taxonomic issues in plant and animal identification.

Friday, January 2, 2015

Prominent Moths of Ohio


Prominent Moths belong to the family Notodontidae. They look very much like, and are distantly related to the Owlet Moths (Noctuidae). The difference between the families has to do with how the wing veins branch off, something you can't see in the field anyway. I have posted on several families before, but these are all drab and dull colored, so commenting on how to tell them apart is going to be difficult. Many have tufts of hair on their legs and along the wing margins. They tend to hold their wings roof like or tent shaped over their bodies, raised higher than most Noctuids.

Many species actually fold their wings around the body and look like dead leaves or twigs. Here is an example of a Datana moth, which appears to have its head missing. All of our species are nocturnal, and the vast majority do not feed as adults. Their bodies are stout, and fatter than most Noctuids. Many have wings that are longer and skinnier than our Owlet moths.

The array of shapes and colors in the larvae is varied in this family, but I chose one to represent a number of the species. Many of the caterpillars have irregular shaped bodies, and mixed color patterns that contribute to their camouflage. I present the 53 species known from Ohio in two separate posts.


Pink Prominent, Hyparpax aurora. Since almost everything in this family is a mixture of dull green, gray, or brown, I thought I would start with one of the showy species. It is lined in pink, with yellow in the center of the wing. The only possible species one could confuse this with is the Rosy Maple Moth. In that species the pink and yellow pattern is more solid. Rosy Maple lacks that thin pink line in the forewing, and also does not have a pink tipped abdomen or thorax.

I want to thank Bob Patterson from the MPG site for creating a special link that allows me to use his maps. In the past I have made my own the old school way, pressing stick-on dots to a piece of paper. Time to join the 21st century.  # 8022. The maps follow the species discussed just above. As in previous posts, these numbers are from the Hodges checklist of North American Lepidoptera. I may also have mentioned in the past that I am in no way competing with the Moth Photographers Group. They show species continent wide. I simply narrow my posts to just those in Ohio.



Double-toothed Prominent, Nerice bidentata. Upper half of the forewing brown and bordered by a black line. A number of black teeth bleed into the gray portion of the wing. As in the past, all pinned photos courtesy of Jim Vargo, and used by permission.

Pinned specimens are important to entomologists and for scientific purposes. Non-collectors are active in moth photography, and these are the views they use for identification. Many are easily recognized in the field, others are not. To make this post appealing to everyone, I have turned to one of my neighbors for assistance. Some of you will remember Diane Brooks for hosting a wonderful evening at her house during the Bur Oak Mothapalooza. The uncredited live shots are mine, but since I have so few, I am happy to share many of her photos with you. Most are new Perry County records not yet depicted on the range maps.


#7929


Sigmoid Prominent, Clostera albosigma. Forewing light colored with a series of faded white lines. The key character is the orange and brown spots at the top of the wing, bordered by a white S. The caterpillars are sometimes known as the White-marked Tentmaker.

Diane Brooks photo.

#7895


Angle-lined Prominent, Clostera inclusa. Similar to the above species, but the orange spot is thinner and a bit more faded. Look for the two white lines forming a V shape.


The larva is known as the Poplar Tentmaker. They will spin silk around several leaves of Willow, Aspen, or Poplars. D. Brooks photos

#7896


Striped Chocolate-tip, Clostera strigosa. The forewing is more blotched than the previous two. The white lines are more wavy than straight. The orange patch in the wing corner is more yellow in this species. This is a species of the northern U.S. and Canada. Look for it in the upper portions of Ohio. This species is much smaller than other members of the genus.

#7898


Apical Prominent, Clostera apicalis. This species is in my area, and I've yet to come across it. That's probably because apicalis has combined characters of the above species, and I have mistaken it for one of them. It has the V shape of inclusa, and the dark orange spot of albosigma. Instead of a white S, look for a white tornado mark on the wing edge. The row of black spots outside the V is more distinct in this species.

#7901


White-dotted Prominent, Nadata gibbosa. This is a very common and widely distributed species. The two dark lines border two white dots in the wing. The wing margins are wavy. When at rest, there is a large tuft of pointy hairs behind the head.
Diane Brooks

#7915


Georgia Prominent, Hyperaeschra georgica. The dull gray wings contain a number of horizontal black dashes. There is a small yellow oval patch at the base of the wing. This and the following species of Peridea all show a black circular patch of scales that protrude into the hind wing when pinned.

#7917


Oval-based Prominent, Peridea basitriens. The common name is in reference to the round brown patch at the bottom of the front wing. Look for gray shading above that. All our species of Peridea show either yellow abdomens, or yellow at the base of the hindwing.
Diane Brooks

#7919


Angulose Prominent, Peridea angulosa. Rather than a round patch, the base of the forewing has a dark patch extending from top to bottom. It is bordered by a zig-zag or Z shaped line. The grayish white shading forms a vertical streak alongside the zig-zag. Small bits of orange are scattered around the inner half of the wing.
Diane Brooks

#7920



Chocolate Prominent, Peridea ferruginea. Female above, male below. While there is a circular dark patch in the wing like basitriens, and a white streak like angulosa, all one really has to look for is the rufus or reddish-brown tint of both sexes. Probably more widespread in Ohio than records indicate.

#7921



Elegant Prominent, Odontosia elegans. A species with solid grayish-brown wings highlighted by an orange-brown patch at the base of the forewings. The tuft of scales that stick out of the front wings are sharper or more tooth like rather than round.

#7924




Black-rimmed Prominent, Pheosia rimosa. A large white streak bordered by black and brown extends throughout the wing, making identification of this species easy. It is common and widespread around the state. Diane Brooks photo.

#7922


Finned-willow Prominent, Notodonta scitipennis. The tip of the wings show two black streaks followed by a rusty brown line going down the outer portion of the wing. The light color is a purplish-gray mix. The base of the wing has a distinct yellow patch. This is apparently not a common species.

#7926


Northern Finned Prominent, Notodonta torva (simplaria). A species of the upper Great Lakes and Canada, just extending down into northern Ohio. The dull color pattern is typical of so many in this family. The center of the wing is darker gray, and bordered by zig-zag lines. Within that darker area is a gray eye spot or reniform spot, surrounded by white.

#7928


Basswood or Linden Prominent, Illida caniplaga. A light gray species with usually a double black line coming down from the wing margin. To make sure of the identification, I use the comma or crescent moon shape located behind those black lines.
D. Brooks

#7930




Common Gluphisia, Gluphisia septentrionis. A highly variable species, but I see it most often in this all gray form just above the text. There may be a small yellow patch extending outward from the thorax near the base of the wings. Two faded black lines come down the wing that appear wavy or zig-zag. Between those two lines may be a small slightly orange-yellow patch. Those areas may be solid black or filled with orange on other color forms of this species.
D. Brooks

#7931



Four-spotted Gluphisia, Gluphisia avimacula. Look for the four small yellow spots in the wings, otherwise it is similar to the previous species. The Gluphisia moths are mottled gray, with two wavy lines in the forewings (known as AM & PM lines). In this species, the AM or inner most line is more prominent. This second form shows the small dots occurring as larger yellow patches. Rarely you may find a solid black and gray form as well.

This species is more common northward. Our Ohio records are some of the most southern for this species in the east and midwest. #7933


Lintner's Gluphisia, Gluphisia lintneri. This is another northern species barely reaching down into Ohio. Look in the space between the AM & PM lines, it should be filled with yellow-orange.

#7934



Black-Etched Prominent, Cerura scitiscripta. This species has white forewings. A series of black lines run down the wing. On the darker forms, look for the horizontal veins to also be streaked in black. On the inner portion of the wing, there is a row of gray-green circles. Lighter forms with the white hind wings tend to be more southern in range.

A photo from Diane showing a female with eggs.

The purple-green caterpillar is striking. It will wave those two long tails in the air as part of its defense mechanism. Look for it on Aspen, Cottonwood, and Willow.

#7942



White Furcula, Furcula borealis. There are four species of Furcula moths in Ohio. They are all black, white, and gray. Each has a row of black dots along the outer edge of both the front and hind wings. The amount of black varies between species. When fresh, many of the species will also show orange dots bordering the black. On borealis, pay attention to the two very white patches in the forewing. They have many pepper marks scattered within. This species feeds on Cherry, but most others will be found on Willow, Aspen, and other Poplars.
D. Brooks

#7936


Modest Furcula, Furcula modesta. Not as brilliant as borealis. The white is duller and paler. The large black streak in the wing is constricted in the middle, making it more hourglass in shape. In some specimens the hourglass may be split into two separate patches. The outer black mark does not come down the wing, but is more blunt, and ends abruptly. There is only a 'modest' amount of black peppering throughout.

#7941


Western Furcula, Furcula occidentalis. On this species the dark black bands are somewhat reduced to mottled gray patches. The amount of yellow or orange spotting will vary. The PM line, or outer zig-zag line shows two sets of black teeth protruding out into the wing.

#7939


Gray Furcula, Furcula cinerea. An appropriate common name for the one species that shows little to no black patches. If markings are present, they are usually dark gray. Because the species is primarily all gray, the yellow or orange dots are often easier to spot on this species. This is fairly common in Ohio.

#7937



Symmerista moths. There are three species in Ohio. As you'll see with the following pictures, the adults all look alike. D. Brooks photo



White-marked or White-headed Prominent, Symmerista albifrons. This and the following two species are virtually IDENTICAL, at least when observed in the field. Records for these three are probably mixed together. See my comments at the end.

#7951


Red-humped Oakworm, Symmerista canicosta.

#7952


Orange-humped Oakworm, Symmerista leucitys.
D. Brooks photo

#7953


As I stated, these three can not be reliably separated in the field. You have to look at the genitalia. Dissection is not necessary, but you have to have the specimen in hand. If you brush the scales off the abdomen, you can tell which species it is. No one is going to do that if you are just taking pictures, but in words I often hate using myself, I'm "just sayin'". This is how you do it.

Click on the photo for the details. This is albifrons. Notice the dark outline is U shaped on this species. On canicosta, the U shape is much wider, like a deep dug out canal or hole. On leucitys, it is skinny or constricted inward, like part of an hourglass, (right at the tip of the arrow).

Part 2 here

No comments:

Post a Comment